PICO is a framework that provides a conceptual guide for production system analysis and design in the construction industry. It has four key components: Production control mechanism, Information and communication system, Commercial terms, and Organizational structure. Each component is highly interdependent and has a set of detailed parameters and enumerated values. A comprehensive literature review, case studies, and analysis highlighted the knowledge gaps in current production system design frameworks. The PICO framework was originally devised to design a production system suited for short-takt production in residential construction, but it has been developed into a comprehensive mapping tool for the design and analysis of construction production systems in general. The paper shows an application of the framework to a takt system as a case study and an example of its application. The framework expands the current understanding of production systems in construction, offering new insights and a comprehensive approach to designing new production systems.